Several techniques have been developed to relate patterns of brain damage to speech and language deficits seen after a stroke. Lesion-deficit studies, like the ones discussed below, investigate how a lesion (measured on a structural MRI or CT) is related to a deficit. That is, these studies use statistical tests to relate areas of brain damage to scores on a given behavioral measure (e.g., standardized assessment scores). These techniques have been widely adopted in stroke research, and have since provided a great deal of information about what kinds of deficits to expect after a stroke lesion. 

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